August 23, 2018

Micronaut Mastery: Using Stubs For Testing

Writing tests is always a good idea when developing an application. Micronaut makes it very easy to write tests. Using the @Client annotation we can generate a client for our REST resources that uses HTTP. Starting up a Micronaut application is so fast we can run our actual application in our tests. And using dependency injection we can replace components from the production application with stubs in our tests.

Let's show how we can use stub in our tests for an example application. In the example application we have controller ConferenceController that returns Conference objects. These objects are fetched from a simple data repository ConferenceDataRepository. When we write a test we want to replace the ConferenceDataRepository with a stub, so we can return the appropriate Conference objects for our tests.

First we take a look at the Conference class:

package mrhaki.micronaut;

public class Conference {
    
    private final String name;
    private final String location;

    public Conference(String name, String location) {
        this.name = name;
        this.location = location;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public String getLocation() {
        return location;
    }
    
}

We add an interface that describe the functionality we expect for getting Conference objects in our application:

// File: src/main/java/mrhaki/micronaut/ConferenceService.java
package mrhaki.micronaut;

import io.reactivex.Maybe;
import io.reactivex.Single;

import java.util.List;

interface ConferenceService {

    Single<List<Conference>> all();

    Maybe<Conference> findByName(final String name);
    
}

For our example the implementation of the ConferenceService is simple, but in a real world application the code would probably access a database to get the results:

// File: src/main/java/mrhaki/micronaut/ConferenceDataRepository.java
package mrhaki.micronaut;

import io.reactivex.Maybe;
import io.reactivex.Observable;
import io.reactivex.Single;

import javax.inject.Singleton;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

@Singleton
public class ConferenceDataRepository implements ConferenceService {

    private final static List<Conference> CONFERENCES =
            Arrays.asList(new Conference("Gr8Conf EU", "Copenhagen"),
                          new Conference("Gr8Conf US", "Minneapolis"),
                          new Conference("Greach", "Madrid"));

    public Single<List<Conference>> all() {
        return Single.just(CONFERENCES);
    }

    public Maybe<Conference> findByName(final String name) {
        return all()
                .flatMapObservable(conferences -> Observable.fromIterable(conferences))
                .filter(conference -> name.equals(conference.getName()))
                .singleElement();
    }

}

Finally our controller to return conference data via HTTP REST that uses via dependency injection the ConferenceDataRepository implementation of the ConferenceService interface:

// File: src/main/java/mrhaki/micronaut/ConferenceController.java
package mrhaki.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get;
import io.reactivex.Maybe;
import io.reactivex.Single;

import java.util.List;

@Controller("/conference")
public class ConferenceController {

    private final ConferenceService conferenceService;

    public ConferenceController(final ConferenceService conferenceService) {
        this.conferenceService = conferenceService;
    }

    @Get("/")
    public Single<List<Conference>> all() {
        return conferenceService.all();
    }

    @Get("/{name}")
    public Maybe<Conference> findByName(final String name) {
        return conferenceService.findByName(name);
    }
    
}

To add a stub for the ConferenceService in our test we must write a new implementation of the ConferenceService that is available on the test class path and not on the production code class path. In our test code directory (src/test/{java|groovy|kotlin}) we write our stub implementation. We use the @Primary annotation to instruct Micronaut to use this implementation of the ConferenceService interface. If we leave out the @Primary annotation we get an error, because we have two implementations of the interface on our classpath, ConferenceDataRepository and ConferenceServiceStub, and Micronaut doesn't know which one to use. By using @Primary we tell Micronaut to use the stub implementation.

// File: src/test/groovy/mrhaki/micronaut/ConferenceServiceStub.groovy
package mrhaki.micronaut

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Primary
import io.reactivex.Maybe
import io.reactivex.Single

import javax.inject.Singleton

@Singleton
@Primary
class ConferenceServiceStub implements ConferenceService {

    Single<List<Conference>> all() {
        return Single.just([new Conference("Gr8Conf", "Copenhagen")])
    }

    Maybe<Conference> findByName(final String name) {
        if (name == 'Gr8Conf') {
            return Maybe.just(new Conference("Gr8Conf", "Copenhagen"))
        } else {
            return Maybe.empty()
        }
    }

}

In our test directory we also add a declarative HTTP client to invoke the REST resource. This client is only used for testing and makes invoking the REST resource very easy:

// File: src/test/groovy/mrhaki/micronaut/ConferenceClient.groovy
package mrhaki.micronaut

import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get
import io.micronaut.http.client.Client
import io.reactivex.Maybe
import io.reactivex.Single

@Client("/conference")
interface ConferenceClient {

    @Get("/")
    Single<List<Conference>> all()

    @Get("/{name}")
    Maybe<Conference> findByName(final String name)

}

We write a Spock specification to test our REST resource and it will use the stub code as implementation of ConferenceService:

// File: src/test/groovy/mrhaki/micronaut/ConferenceContollerSpec.groovy
package mrhaki.micronaut

import io.micronaut.context.ApplicationContext
import io.micronaut.runtime.server.EmbeddedServer
import io.reactivex.Maybe
import io.reactivex.Single
import spock.lang.AutoCleanup
import spock.lang.Shared
import spock.lang.Specification

class ConferenceContollerSpec extends Specification {
    
    @Shared
    @AutoCleanup
    private EmbeddedServer embeddedServer = ApplicationContext.run(EmbeddedServer)

    @Shared
    private ConferenceClient client = embeddedServer.applicationContext.getBean(ConferenceClient)

    void 'get all conferences'() {
        when:
        final Single<List<Conference>> result = client.all()
        
        then:
        final conference = result.blockingGet().first() 
        with(conference) {
            name == 'Gr8Conf'
            location == 'Copenhagen'
        }
    }
    
    void 'find conference by name'() {
        when:
        final Maybe<Conference> result = client.findByName('Gr8Conf')
        
        then:
        final conference = result.blockingGet()
        with(conference) {
            name == 'Gr8Conf'
            location == 'Copenhagen'
        }
    }
    
    void 'return empty when conference cannot be found by name'() {
        when:
        final Maybe<Conference> result = client.findByName('JavaOne')

        then:
        result.isEmpty().blockingGet()
    }
}

Written with Micronaut 1.0.0.M4.